How wireless nRF24L01+ module works?

Nowadays, wireless communication rules the entire world. There are many wireless communication technologies available like Bluetooth, Wifi, RF, etc. The NRF24L01 is one of the wireless transceiver RF modules used for SPI communication with a 2Mbps transmission speed. If you want to know or learn how the nRF24L01+ module works, then you are at the right place. In this article, we are going to only discuss the nRF24l01 wireless module (transceiver).

Before we start, we will tell you why it is really important to learn this nrf24l01 module. The main reason is it is very low cost. It is just around 2$. You can buy that here. Just buy that and use it in your projects.

Hardware Overview of nRF24L01+ module

First, there are three modules available in the market. nRF24L01, nRF24L01+ and nRF24L01+ PA LNA.

nRF24L01 ModulenRF24L01 RF Module nRF24L01+ RF Wireless modulenRF24L01+ RF Module nRF24L01 RF Module-PA-LNA Wireless Transceiver ModulenRF24L01+ PA LNA RF Module

The main difference between the nRF24L01 and nRF24L01+ data rate. nRF24L01 has only 1Mbps and 2Mbps on-air data rate, while the nRF24L01+ version can also support 250Kbps. Both nRF24L01 and nRF24L01+ can be mixed together as long as 1MBps or 2 MBps is used as the data rate.

There are a few differences between nRF24L01+ and nRF24L01+ PA LNA that we will cover at the last. We will cover nRF24L01+ with PA LNA in this article.

nRF24L01+

nRF24L01+ is a single-chip 2.4GHz transceiver module used in data transmission.  Each nRF24L01+ wireless transceiver module can send and receive data. Since it operates on the 2.4 GHz ISM band, the technology is approved for engineering applications in almost all countries. The data transfer rate is configurable and can be one of 250kbps, 1Mbps, and 2Mbps. Using the lower data rate gives a better receiver sensitivity than the higher data rate. But higher data rate consumes a lower average current and reduces the probability of on-air collisions.

nRF24L01+ PA LNA

The nRF24L01+ wireless transceiver module is powered by 3.3 Volts, so it can be easily used in both 3.2 Volts and 5 Volts systems.

For compatibility with nRF2401A, nRF24E1, nRF2402, and nRF24E2 the air data rate must be set to 250Kbps or 1Mbps.

nRF24L01+ Technical Specifications

The nRF24L01+ technical specifications and features are given below.

Frequency Range Worldwide 2.4 GHz ISM Band.
Channels 126 Channels
Channel Spacing
  • 1MHz non-overlapping channel spacing at 1Mbps
  • 2MHz non-overlapping channel spacing at 2Mbps
Modulation GFSK
Operating voltage 1.9 V to 3.6 V
Data Rates up to 2 Mbps (250Kbps, 1MBps, and 2Mbps)
 Tx output power (Programmable) 0dBm, -6dBm, -12dBm or -18dBm
Max Tx Operating Current 11.3mA at 0dBm
Max Rx Operating Current 12.3mA at 2Mbps
Operating Current(Standby Mode) 22uA
Operating Current(Power Down Mode) 900nA
Host Interface 4-pin SPI up to 10Mbps

For more details, please refer to the datasheet.

How does the nRF24L01+ Transceiver work?

nRF24L01+ operating modes

The nRF24L01+ has a built-in state machine that controls the transitions between the different operating modes of the chip. It has the below operating modes.

Power Down Mode

In the Power-down mode, nRF24L01+ will be disabled. So the power consumption will be minimal. In this mode, the SPI will be kept active and we can access the register values.

Standby Modes

These are the intermediate state before going for TX or RX mode. It has two modes called Standby Mode-I, and Standby Mode-II. Standby mode-I consumes less power because only the part of the crystal oscillator is active. In Standby mode-II, extra clock buffers are active. So, it will consume more power than Standby mode-I.

RX Mode

When we make the nRF24L01+ as a receiver, it will go to the RX mode. In this mode, the receiver continuously demodulates the signal from the RF channel and sends that to the baseband protocol engine. The baseband protocol engine checks whether the packet received is valid or not by checking the address and CRC. If that is a valid packet it will write that data to the RX FIFO. If the RX FIFO is full, then it will discard the data.

Note: nRF24L01+ wireless module remains in the RX mode until we configure it to go to Standby mode or Power-down mode. If the Enhanced ShockBurst feature is enabled, then it can enter to other modes.

TX Mode

When we transmit some data, the module will go to the TX mode. The nRF24L01+ wireless transceiver module will stay in the TX mode until it finishes the transmission of the current packet. After that, if the TX FIFO is empty, then it will go to Standby mode. If it is not empty, it will transmit the data in the TX FIFO until it becomes empty.

RF Channel Frequency

As we have already said, this nRF24L01+ wireless module communicates using the 2.4GHz ISM band. And the channel bandwidth is 1MHz at 1Mbps and 2MHz at 2Mbps. What does it mean?

Okay, we know the nRF24L01+ RF wireless module will communicate using 2400MHz (2.4GHz). If our channel bandwidth is 1MHz, then we can transmit or receive on 2400MHz, 22401MHz, 2402MHz, 2403MHz, 2404MHz … 2525MHz. For 2Mbps, we must use a channel bandwidth 2MHz or more to avoid non-overlapping channels. If we use 2MHz as channel bandwidth in 2Mbps, we can transmit and receive on 2400MHz, 2402MHz, 2404MHz, and so on.

For 1MHz channel bandwidth, we will have 126 channels and for 2MHz channel bandwidth, we have 63 channels.

A transmitter and a receiver must be programmed with the same RF channel frequency to be able to communicate with each other. If the channel bandwidth is 1MHz and the transmitter is transmitting using 2500MHz (channel 100), then the receiver must listen on the 100th channel (2500MHz). Then only it can be able to receive the data, otherwise, the data would be lost.

The below image will help you to understand more.

The RF channel frequency is set by the RF_CH register according to the following formula:

F0 = 2400 + RF_CH [MHz]

For example, if you select 100 as your channel for data transmission/reception, the RF channel frequency of your channel will be 2500 MHz (2400 + 100).

Enhanced ShockBurst™

Enhanced ShockBrust™ is a feature that is available in the nRF24L01+ RF wireless module. That will handle the below operations.

  • Automatic packet handling
    • Automatic packet assembly – Assembles the packet with a preamble, address, and other required information.
    • Automatic packet validation – When the receiver receives the packet, it will check whether the packet is valid or not.
    • Automatic packet disassembly – The valid received packet is disassembled and the payload is copied into the RX FIFO.
  • Automatic acknowledgment – Automatically transmits an ACK to the transmitter after it has received the valid packet.
  • Retransmissions of packets – If the ACK is not received from the receiver, then automatically the transmitter will retransmit the packet.
  • 1 to 32 bytes dynamic payload length
  • 6 data pipe Multiceiver™ for 1:6 star networks

nRF24L01+ Multiceiver

MultiCeiver is a feature that is implemented in this nRF24L01+ RF wireless module. It is nothing but a single receiver that can able to receive the data from multiple transmitters (up to 6) in a single frequency channel. So, already we have divided the frequency into 126 channels. Now, again we are dividing one channel into 6 pipes. This is implemented by using the 6 different parallel data pipes. Each data pipe has a unique address. The below diagram will help you to understand this.

nRF24L01+ Multiceiver Network

Only one data pipe in the receiver can receive the packet at a time. By default data pipe 0 and data pipe 1 are enabled. Others can be enabled by configuring the register. We can program the address of each data pipe and we should not use the same address for the data pipes.

nRF24L01+ Pinout

nRF24L01+ Pinout

This nRF24L01+ RF radio has 8 pins.

  • GNDGround
  • VCC Input power to the RF radio. It can be anywhere from 1.9 to 3.9 volts. Remember if you give 5V to this pin, it may destroy your nRF24L01+ module.
  • CE (Chip Enable) This is used to activate the chip in RX or TX mode (Active High).
  • CSN (Chip Select Not) This will be kept high and when we want to send a command through SPI, we need to make this low. Every new command must be started by a high-to-low transition on this CSN pin.
  • SCK (Serial Clock) SPI clock.
  • MOSI (Master Out Slave In) SPI input to the nRF24L01.
  • MISO (Master In Slave Out) SPI output from the nRF24L01.
  • IRQ Interrupt pin that can alert the master when new data is available to process.

Controlling the nRF24L01+ RF wireless module

We can configure this nRF wireless module using the SPI communication from the Microcontroller. This nRF24L01+ module supports SPI up to 10Mbps. If you want to learn SPI, you can check out our SPI tutorial. In that article, we have explained SPI completely from the basics to the advanced.

We can configure and control the RF radio by accessing the register map using the SPI communication.

There are many 1-byte SPI commands available in this nRF24L01+. Using that commands, we can activate the nRF24L01+ wireless transceiver module data FIFO and access the registers of this RF wireless module.

First, we need to send the Command byte followed by the Data bytes.

Commands

As we said earlier there are many commands available for each operation. The commands are given below.

COMMAND COMMAND BYTE OPERATION
R_REGISTER 000XXXXX This command is used to read the status registers. We have to replace XXXXX with the 5-bit register address. (1 – 5 bytes)
W_REGISTER 001XXXXX This command is used to write the data to the registers. We have to replace XXXXX with the 5-bit register address. This command can be executed in the Power down or standby modes.(1 – 5 bytes)
R_RX_PAYLOAD 01100001 This command is used to read RX-payload (1 – 32 bytes). The payload will be deleted from the FIFO after you read it. This is used in RX mode.
W_TX_PAYLOAD 10100000 Using this command we can write the payload (1– 32 bytes) to the TX FIFO.
FLUSH_TX 11100001 Using this command, we can flush the TX FIFO. This is used in the TX mode.
FLUSH_RX 11100010 Using this command, we can flush the RX FIFO. This is used in the RX mode. We should not execute this command while transmitting the acknowledge.
REUSE_TX_PL 11100011 This command will tell the RF radio to reuse the last payload. This will reuse the payload until we flush the TX FIFO using FLUSH_TX or write the new payload using the command W_TX_PAYLOAD. We should not activate or deactivate this command during the data transmission.
R_RX_PL_WID 01100000 Using this command we can read the RX payload width in the RX FIFO. We need to set the proper bits in the FEATURE register to use this feature.
W_ACK_PAYLOAD 10101PPP Write Payload to be transmitted together with ACK packet on PIPE PPP. (PPP is valid in the
range from 000 to 101). A maximum of three ACK packet payloads can be pending. Payloads with the same PPP are handled using the first in – first out principle. Write payload: 1– 32 bytes. A write operation always starts at byte 0. We need to set the proper bits in the FEATURE register to use this feature.
W_TX_PAYLOAD_NOACK 10110000 This is used in TX mode. Disables AUTOACK on this specific packet. We need to set the proper bits in the FEATURE register to use this feature.
NOP 11111111 No Operation. Might be used to read the STATUS register.

Register Map

In our previous section, we have seen the commands that are used to access the nRF24L01+ registers. In this section, we will see all the registers. We can control the RF radio by accessing the below registers using the above SPI commands.

CONFIG Register

This register is used to configure the radio. The address of this CONFIG register is 0x00.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved MASK_RX_DR MASK_TX_DS MASK_MAX_RT EN_CRC CRCO PWR_UP PRIM_RX
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • MASK_RX_DR – Mask interrupt caused by RX_DR 1 – Don’t generate the interrupt in the IRQ pin, 0 – Generate the active low interrupt on the IRQ pin.
  • MASK_TX_DS – Mask interrupt caused by TX_DS 1 – Don’t generate the interrupt in the IRQ pin, 0 – Generate the active low interrupt on the IRQ pin.
  • MASK_MAX_RT – Mask interrupt caused by MAX_RT 1 – Don’t generate the interrupt in the IRQ pin, 0 – Generate the active low interrupt on the IRQ pin.
  • EN_CRC – If we set this bit, it will enable the CRC check. This will be forced high if one of the bits in the EN_AA is high.
  • CRCO – This will configure the CRC encoding scheme. ‘0‘ – 1 byte, ‘1‘ – 2 bytes.
  • PWR_UP – ‘1‘ – Power Up, ‘0‘ – Power Down
  • PRIM_RX – Rx/Tx control. ‘1‘ – PRX, ‘0‘ – PTX.

EN_AA Register

This register is used to enable the auto acknowledgment functionality in the radio. The address of this EN_AA register is 0x01.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved ENAA_P5 ENAA_P4 ENAA_P3 ENAA_P2 ENAA_P1 ENAA_P0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • ENAA_P5 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 5
  • ENAA_P4 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 4
  • ENAA_P3 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 3
  • ENAA_P2 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 2
  • ENAA_P1 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 1
  • ENAA_P0 – Enable auto acknowledgment data pipe 0

EN_RXADDR Register

This EN_RXADDR enables the RX addresses. The address of this register is 0x02.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved ERX_P5 ERX_P4 ERX_P3 ERX_P2 ERX_P1 ERX_P0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • ENAA_P5 – Enable data pipe 5
  • ENAA_P4 – Enable data pipe 4
  • ENAA_P3 – Enable data pipe 3
  • ENAA_P2 – Enable data pipe 2
  • ENAA_P1 – Enable data pipe 1
  • ENAA_P0 – Enable data pipe 0

SETUP_AW Register

This SETUP_AW register is used to set up the address width of all data pipes. The address of this register is 0x03.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved AW:1 AW:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • AW:1 AW:0 – ‘00‘ Not allowed, ‘01‘ – 3 bytes, ‘10‘ – 4 bytes, ‘11‘ – 5 bytes.

SETUP_RETR Register

This register is used to set up the Automatic retransmission. The address of this register is 0x04.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
ARD:3 ARD:2 ARD:1 ARD:0 ARC:3 ARC:2 ARC:1 ARC:0
  • ARD:3 ARD:0 – Auto retransmit delay. ‘0000‘ – 250us, ‘0001‘ – 500us, ‘0010‘ – 750us, … ‘1111‘ – 4000us.
  • ARC:3 ARC:0 – Auto retransmit count. ‘0000‘ – disabled, ‘0001‘ – 1 retry, ‘0010‘ – 2 retry, … ‘1111‘ – 15 retry.

RF_CH Register

This register is used to set up the RF channel. The address of this register is 0x05.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved RF_CH:6 RF_CH:5 RF_CH:4 RF_CH:3 RF_CH:2 RF_CH:1 RF_CH:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RF_CH:6 RF_CH:0 – Sets the frequency channel. ‘0000000‘ – channel 0, ‘0000001‘ – Channel 1, till channel 125.

RF_SETUP Register

This RF_SETUP register is used to set up the RF. The address of this register is 0x06.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
CONT_WAVE Reserved RF_DR_LOW PLL_LOCK RF_DR_HIGH RF_PWR:1 RF_PWR:0 Obsolete
  • CONT_WAVE – Enables continuous carrier transit when high.
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RF_DR_LOW – Sets RF data rate to 250Kbps.
  • PLL_LOCK – Force PLL lock signal( used only for testing).
  • RF_DR_HIGH – Sets high-speed RF data rates. ‘0‘ – 1Mbps, ‘1’ – 2Mbps. If the RF_DR_LOW bit is set, then this bit will be don’t care.
  • RF_PWR:1 RF_PWR:0 – SetRF output power. ‘00‘ : -18dBm, ‘01‘ : -12dBm, ‘10‘ : -6dBm, ‘11‘ : 0dBm
  • Obsolete – Don’t care

STATUS Register

This is the status register and its address is 0x07.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved RX_DR TX_DS MAX_RT RX_P_NO:2 RX_P_NO:1 RX_P_NO:0 TX_FULL
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_DR– Data Ready RX FIFO interrupt. Asserted when new data arrives RX FIFO. Write 1 to clear bit.
  • TX_DS– Data Sent TX FIFO interrupt. Asserted when packet transmitted on TX. If AUTO_ACK is activated, this bit is set high only when ACK is received. Write 1 to clear bit.
  • MAX_RT– Maximum number of TX retransmits interrupt Write 1 to clear bit. If MAX_RT is asserted it must be cleared to enable further communication.
  • RX_P_NO:2 RX_P_NO:0 – Data pipe number for the payload available for reading from RX_FIFO. 000101: Data pipe number, 111: RX FIFO empty.
  • TX_FULL– TX FIFO Full flag. ‘1‘- TXFIFO Full, ‘0‘- One or more TX FIFO is free.

OBSERVE_TX Register

This OBSERVE_TX register is used to transmit the observe register. The address of this register is 0x08.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
PLOS_CNT:3 PLOS_CNT:2 PLOS_CNT:1 PLOS_CNT:0 ARC_CNT:3 ARC_CNT:2 ARC_CNT:1 ARC_CNT:0
  • PLOS_CNT:3 PLOS_CNT:0 – This has the count of the lost packets. This is overflow protected. So, when it reaches count 15, it will discontinue the transmission until reset. We can reset this count by writing the RF_CH register.
  • ARC_CNT:3 ARC_CNT:0 – Retransmitted packet count. This will be reset once the new packet starts.

CD Register

This CD register is used to enable the carrier detect. The address of this register is 0x09.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved CD
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • CD – Enables carrier detection.

RX_ADDR_P0 Register

5 bytes register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 0 for RX operation. The address of this register is 0x0A.

RX_ADDR_P1 Register

5 bytes register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 1 for RX operation. The address of this register is 0x0B.

RX_ADDR_P2 Register

1-byte register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 2 for RX operation. This is only LSB. Another 4 bytes will be used from the RX_ADDR_P0 register. The address of this register is 0x0C.

RX_ADDR_P3 Register

1-byte register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 3 for RX operation. This is only LSB. Another 4 bytes will be used from the RX_ADDR_P0 register. The address of this register is 0x0D.

RX_ADDR_P4 Register

1-byte register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 4 for RX operation. This is only LSB. Another 4 bytes will be used from the RX_ADDR_P0 register. The address of this register is 0x0E.

RX_ADDR_P5 Register

1-byte register which is used to set the address for the data pipe 5 for RX operation. This is only LSB. Another 4 bytes will be used from the RX_ADDR_P0 register. The address of this register is 0x0F.

TX_ADDR Register

5 bytes register which is used to set the address for the TX operation. The address of this register is 0x10.

RX_PW_P0 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 0. The address of this register is 0x11.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P0:5 RX_PW_P0:4 RX_PW_P0:3 RX_PW_P0:2 RX_PW_P0:1 RX_PW_P0:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P0:5 RX_PW_P0:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 0. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

RX_PW_P1 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 1. The address of this register is 0x12.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P1:5 RX_PW_P1:4 RX_PW_P1:3 RX_PW_P1:2 RX_PW_P1:1 RX_PW_P1:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P1:5 RX_PW_P1:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 1. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

RX_PW_P2 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 2. The address of this register is 0x13.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P2:5 RX_PW_P2:4 RX_PW_P2:3 RX_PW_P2:2 RX_PW_P2:1 RX_PW_P2:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P2:5 RX_PW_P2:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 2. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

RX_PW_P3 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 3. The address of this register is 0x14.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P3:5 RX_PW_P3:4 RX_PW_P3:3 RX_PW_P3:2 RX_PW_P3:1 RX_PW_P3:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P3:5 RX_PW_P3:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 3. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

RX_PW_P4 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 4. The address of this register is 0x15.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P4:5 RX_PW_P4:4 RX_PW_P4:3 RX_PW_P4:2 RX_PW_P4:1 RX_PW_P4:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P4:5 RX_PW_P4:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 4. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

RX_PW_P5 Register

This register will have the number of bytes in the RX payload in data pipe 5. The address of this register is 0x16.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved RX_PW_P5:5 RX_PW_P5:4 RX_PW_P5:3 RX_PW_P5:2 RX_PW_P5:1 RX_PW_P5:0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_PW_P5:5 RX_PW_P5:0 – Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 5. 0 = Disabled, 1 = 1byte, 2 = 2bytes … 32 = 32 bytes.

FIFO_STATUS Register

This register is used to read the FIFO status. The address of this register is 0x17.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved TX_REUSE TX_FULL TX_EMPTY Reserved Reserved RX_FULL RX_EMPTY
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • TX_REUSE– If we set this bit, it will reuse the last transmitted payload. The packet will be retransmitted as long as CE is high.
  • TX_FULL– If this bit is set the TX FIFO is full. Otherwise, FIFO is not full.
  • TX_EMPTYIf this bit is set the TX FIFO is empty. Otherwise, FIFO is not empty.
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • RX_FULLIf this bit is set the RX FIFO is full. Otherwise, FIFO is not full.
  • RX_EMPTY – If this bit is set the RX FIFO is empty. Otherwise, FIFO is not empty.

Note: Register addresses 0x18 to 0x1B are reserved for test purposes, altering them will make the chip malfunction.

DYNPD Register

This DYNPD register is used to enable the dynamic payload length. This register address is 0x1C.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved DPL_P5 DPL_P4 DPL_P3 DPL_P2 DPL_P1 DPL_P0
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • DPL_P5Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 5. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P5)
  • DPL_P4– Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 4. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P4)
  • DPL_P3– Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 3. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P3)
  • DPL_P2– Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 2. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P2)
  • DPL_P1Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 1. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P1)
  • DPL_P0– Enable dynamic payload length data pipe 0. (Requires EN_DPL and ENAA_P0)

FEATURE Register

This DYNPD register is used to enable the dynamic payload length. This register address is 0x1C.

Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved EN_DPL EN_ACK_PAY DPL_EN_DYN_ACK
  • Reserved – Reserved bit. Only 0 is allowed.
  • EN_DPLEnable dynamic payload length.
  • EN_ACK_PAYEnable payload with ACK.
  • DPL_EN_DYN_ACKEnables the W_TX_PAYLOAD_NOACK command.

Okay, yes this is a very long story. It has these many registers in the nRF24L01+ RF wireless module.

Applications of nRF24L01+ Wireless Transceiver Module

  • Wireless PC Peripherals
  • Mouse, keyboards, and remotes
  • 3-in-one desktop bundles
  • Advanced Media center remote controls
  • VoIP headsets
  • Game controllers
  • Sports watches and sensors
  • RF remote controls for consumer electronics
  • Home and commercial automation
  • Ultra-low power sensor networks
  • Active RFID
  • Asset tracing systems
  • Toys

Differences between nRF24L01+ and nRF24L01+ PA LNA

nRF24L01+ nRF24L01+ PA LNA
nRF24L01+ RF Wireless module nRF24L01 RF Module-PA-LNA
This has an onboard antenna. It comes with an external IPX antenna.
It doesn’t have PA (Power Amplifier) and LNA (Low-Noise Amplifier). It has PA (Power Amplifier) and LNA (Low-Noise Amplifier).
In open space, it covers a distance of 100 meters. In open space, it covers a distance of 1000 meters.

What is PA and LNA?

A power Amplifier amplifies the signal strength being transmitted from the nRF24L01+ rf module and a Low-Noise Amplifier takes an extremely weak signal from the antenna and amplifies it to a more useful level. The LNA is used in the receive path and the PA is used in the transmit path.

We have used the nRF24L01 module in our projects. You can refer to that.

You can also read the below tutorials.

Linux Device Driver TutorialsC Programming Tutorials
FreeRTOS TutorialsNuttX RTOS Tutorials
RTX RTOS TutorialsInterrupts Basics
I2C Protocol – Part 1 (Basics)I2C Protocol – Part 2 (Advanced Topics)
STM32 TutorialsLPC2148 (ARM7) Tutorials
PIC16F877A Tutorials8051 Tutorials
Unit Testing in C TutorialsESP32-IDF Tutorials
Raspberry Pi TutorialsEmbedded Interview Topics
Reset Sequence in ARM Cortex-M4BLE Basics
VIC and NVIC in ARMSPI – Serial Peripheral Interface Protocol
Bootloader TutorialsRaspberry PI Pico Tutorials
Zephyr RTOS Tutorials - STM32Zephyr RTOS Tutorials - ESP32
VHDL TutorialsUDS Protocol Tutorials
Product Reviews
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