This is the Series on Linux Device Driver. The aim of this series is to provide easy and practical examples that anyone can understand. Now we are going to see Linux Device Driver Tutorial Part 2 – First Linux Device Driver. Before writing the driver, we should give the module information. So First we will see that module information.
- 1 Linux Device Driver Tutorial Part 2 – First Linux Device Driver
- 2 Module Information
- 3 Simple Kernel Module Programming
- 4 Compiling our driver
- 5 Loading and Unloading the Device driver
Linux Device Driver Tutorial Part 2 – First Linux Device Driver
- Module Description
- Module Version
These pieces of information are present in the
Linux/module.h as macros.
GPL, or the GNU General Public License, is an open-source license meant for software. If your software is licensed under the terms of the GPL, it is free. However, “free” here does not essentially mean freeware—it can also be a paid software. Instead, “free” as per the GPL means freedom. As proponents of GPL proudly proclaim, free as in freedom, not free beer.
The following license idents are currently accepted as indicating free software modules.
"GPL" [GNU Public License v2 or later]
"GPL v2" [GNU Public License v2]
"GPL and additional rights" [GNU Public License v2 rights and more]
"Dual BSD/GPL" [GNU Public License v2 or BSD license choice]
"Dual MIT/GPL" [GNU Public License v2 or MIT license choice]
"Dual MPL/GPL" [GNU Public License v2 or Mozilla license choice]
The following other idents are available
"Proprietary" [Non free products]
There are dual-licensed components, but when running with Linux it is the GPL that is relevant so this is a non-issue. Similarly, LGPL linked with GPL is a GPL combined work.
This exists for several reasons,
modinfocan show license info for users wanting to vet their setup is free
- The community can ignore bug reports including proprietary modules
- Vendors can do likewise based on their own policies
We can give the License for our driver (module) like below. For this, you need to include the Linux/module.h header file.
Note: It is not strictly necessary, but your module really should specify which license applies to its code.
Using this Macro we can mention that who is writing this driver or module. So
modinfo can show the author name for users wanting to know. We can give the Author name for our driver (module) like below. For this, you need to include the Linux/module.h header file.
Note: Use “Name <email>” or just “Name”, for multiple authors use multiple MODULE_AUTHOR() statements/lines.
Using this Macro we can give a description of the module or driver. So
modinfo can show a module description for users wanting to know. We can give the description for our driver (module) like below. For this, you need to include the
Linux/module.h header file.
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("A sample driver");
Using this Macro we can give the version of the module or driver. So
modinfo can show module version for users wanting to know.
Version of form [<epoch>:]<version>[-<extra-version>].
<epoch>: A (small) unsigned integer which allows you to start versions anew. If not mentioned, it’s zero. eg. “2:1.0” is after “1:2.0”.
<version>: The <version> may contain only alphanumerics and the character `.’. Ordered by numeric sort for numeric parts, ASCII sort for ASCII parts (as per RPM or DEB algorithm).
<extraversion>: Like <version>, but inserted for local customizations, eg “rh3” or “rusty1”.
Simple Kernel Module Programming
So as of now, we know the very basic things that needed for writing drivers. Now we will move into programming. In every programming language, how we will start to write the code? Any ideas? Well, in all programming there would be a starting point and ending point. If you take C Language, the starting point would be the main function, Isn’t it? It will start from the starting of the main function and run through the functions which are calling from the main function. Finally, it exits at the main function closing point. But Here two separate functions used for that starting and ending.
- Init function
- Exit function
Kernel modules require a different set of header files than user programs require. And keep in mind, Module code should not invoke user space Libraries or API’s or System calls.
This is the function that will execute first when the driver is loaded into the kernel. For example, when we load the driver using
insmod, this function will execute. Please see below to know the syntax of this function.
static int __init hello_world_init(void) /* Constructor */
This function should register itself by using module_init() macro.
This is the function that will execute last when the driver is unloaded from the kernel. For example, when we unload the driver using
rmmod, this function will execute. Please see below to know the syntax of this function.
void __exit hello_world_exit(void)
This function should register itself by using module_exit() macro.
In C programming how we will print the values or whatever? Correct. Using
printf() is a user-space function. So we cant use this here. So they created one another function for the kernel which is
One of the differences is that
printk lets you classify messages according to their severity by associating different log levels, or priorities, with the messages. You usually indicate the log level with a macro. I will explain about the macros now. There are several macros used for
Used for emergency messages, usually those that precede a crash.
A situation requiring immediate action.
Critical conditions, often related to serious hardware or software failures.
Used to report error conditions; device drivers often use KERN_ERR to report hardware difficulties.
Warnings about problematic situations that do not, in themselves, create serious problems with the system.
Situations that are normal, but still worthy of note. A number of security-related conditions are reported at this level.
Informational messages. Many drivers print information about the hardware they find at startup time at this level.
Used for debugging messages.
printk(KERN_INFO "Welcome To EmbeTronicX");
Difference between printf and printk
Printk()is a kernel-level function, which has the ability to print out to different log levels as defined in. We can see the prints using
printf()will always print to a file descriptor – STD_OUT. We can see the prints in the STD_OUT console.
This is the complete code for our simple device driver (hello_world_module.c). You can download the Project By clicking the below link.
static int __init hello_world_init(void)
printk(KERN_INFO "Welcome to EmbeTronicX\n");
printk(KERN_INFO "This is the Simple Module\n");
printk(KERN_INFO "Kernel Module Inserted Successfully...\n");
void __exit hello_world_exit(void)
printk(KERN_INFO "Kernel Module Removed Successfully...\n");
MODULE_AUTHOR("EmbeTronicX <email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org>");
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("A simple hello world driver");
Compiling our driver
Once we have the C code, it is time to compile it and create the module file hello_world_module.ko. creating a Makefile for your module is straightforward.
obj-m += hello_world_module.o
KDIR = /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build
make -C $(KDIR) M=$(shell pwd) modules
make -C $(KDIR) M=$(shell pwd) clean
With the C code (hello_world_module.c) and Makefile ready, all we need to do is invoke make to build our first driver (hello_world_module .ko).
In Terminal you need to enter
sudo make like the below image.
Loading and Unloading the Device driver
A Kernel Module is a small file that may be loaded into the running Kernel and unloaded.
To load a Kernel Module, use the
insmod command with root privileges.
For example, our module file name is hello_world_module.ko
sudo insmod hello_world_module.ko
Listing the Modules
In order to see the list of currently loaded modules, use the
lsmod command. In the above image, you can see that I have used
To un-load, a Kernel module, use the
rmmod command with root privileges.
In our case,
sudo rmmod hello_world_module.koor
sudo rmmod hello_world_module
Getting Module Details
In order to get information about a Module (author, supported options), we may use the
So now we know where to start to write the Linux device driver. Thank you for reading :-).